AERIAL TERRAIN MAPPING USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE APPROACH
- Dept. of Surveying Science & Geomatics, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying Universiti Teknologi MARA,40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
Keywords: Mapping, Analysis, Camera, Accuracy, Aerial, Photogrammetry
Abstract. This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square errors and mean absolute error to determine the level of accuracy and the precision of photogrammetric products. It can be concluded that the new method of image registration by using the GPS onboard of the UAV produces medium accuracy result compared to the method that uses the ground control point. This new method can be used for the medium accuracy requirements. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle can be used for several applications, which requires a medium accuracy.