The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLVI-4/W3-2021
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLVI-4/W3-2021, 223–227, 2022
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLVI-4/W3-2021, 223–227, 2022
11 Jan 2022
11 Jan 2022


M. I. Mohd Dzukhi1, T. A. Musa1,2, W. A. Wan Aris1, A. H. Omar1, and I. A. Musliman1 M. I. Mohd Dzukhi et al.
  • 1Geomatic Innovation Research Group (UTM-GnG), Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • 2Centre of Tropical Geoengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Keywords: Integer Ambiguity, Ambiguity validation, Ratio test, Fixed solution

Abstract. Once the unknown integer ambiguity values are resolved, the GPS carrier phase observation will be transformed into a millimeter-level precision measurement. However, GPS observation are prone to a variety of errors, making it a biased measurement. There are two components in identifying integer ambiguities: estimation and validation. The estimation procedure aims to determine the ambiguity's integer values, and the validation step checks whether the estimated integer value is acceptable. Even though the theory and procedures for ambiguity estimates are well known, the topic of ambiguity validation is still being researched. The dependability of computed coordinates will be reduced if a false fixed solution emerges from an incorrectly estimated ambiguity integer value. In this study, the reliability of the fixed solution obtained by using several base stations in GPS positioning was investigated, and the coordinates received from these bases were compared. In a conclusion, quality control measures such as employing several base stations will improve the carrier phase measurement's accuracy.