GNSS AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY BY THE SAME TOOL: A FIRST EVALUATION OF THE LEICA GS18I RECEIVER
Keywords: Integration, GNSS, Photogrammetry, Direct Sensor Orientation
Abstract. Leica Geosystems recently introduced a multi-constellation GNSS sensor named GS18i. It is capable to perform tilt compensation and has an integrated photogrammetric camera, allowing the users to measure inaccessible features: this is called visual positioning. The Laboratory of Geomatics, at the University of Pavia – Italy, performed a first evaluation of the rover. Five accessible points were measured repeatedly with the pole having different tilt angles; measurements’ total number was 2077. After moderate blunder detection, RMSE values are 12, 10 and 18 mm, for the East, North and height components.Measurement quality is substantially independent from the pole’s tilt angle. Moreover, ten points belonging to a building’s façade were repeatedly measured by photogrammetry, through the integrated camera, from distances in the range between 4 and 12 meters. In total, 1436 measurements were acquired. After blunder detection, RMSE values are 45, 25 and 66 mm, for the x, y and z components of a local cartesian system. Measurement quality mildly depend on the object-camera distance. Despite a good overall accuracy, results show some surprising aspects: the high ratio between the planimetric component x and y, the counterintuitive behaviour of the y dispersion, which decreases when the distance increases. While the present paper aims at simply being a first evaluation of the rover, next activities will deal with rigorous and controlled photogrammetric processing of the images and will also include simulations, in order to ascertain the role played by the various error sources involved.