International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
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Volume XLII-4
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-4, 11–23, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-11-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-4, 11–23, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-11-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  19 Sep 2018

19 Sep 2018

USING THE COMBINED LADM-INDOORGML MODEL TO SUPPORT BUIILDING EVACUATION

A. Alattas1,2, P. van Oosterom2, S. Zlatanova3, D. Hoeneveld4, and E. Verbree2 A. Alattas et al.
  • 1Faculty of Environmental Design, Geomatics department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • 2Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands
  • 3Faculty of Built Environment, UNSW, Red Centre Building, NSW 2052, Sydney, Australia
  • 4Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft, The Netherlands

Keywords: Indoor modelling, UML, Access, Security, LADM, IndoorGML

Abstract. During an incident, many people that are located in indoor environments require to follow emergency evacuation procedures. The ‘emergency evacuation’ term has been defined as ‘a critical movement of people from a dangerous area due to the risk or an incident of a tragic event’ (Bonabeau, 2002). An emergency evacuation could be needed in a life or death situation, regardless if it begins with a natural non-intended incident or a terrorist attack. Many researchers have studied the behaviour of the people during the evacuation because of several incidents with panic attacks that have led to injuries including death of people being crushed or trampled down by others. In crisis situation, the perception of the indoor environment, which differs from person to person, play a critical role in the evacuation. Also, the access rights of the indoor spaces are different from those rights (and restrictions) during normal times. They may positively impact the movements of the people during the evacuation by providing suggestions for shorter/better route. This paper addresses the impact of the access rights of the indoor spaces during an emergency evacuation. We employ the conceptual model of LADM-IndoorGML that defines the accessibility of the indoor spaces based on the rights, restrictions, and responsibilities of the user of the indoor space. The access rights of the indoor spaces are affected by the crisis event and this needs to be modelled explicitly (and before crisis situation). Actually, the rights/restrictions persons have on spaces is time dependent: normal operation hours, outside normal operation hours (e.g. during night time in case of a University building) or during crisis times. These actual/valid rights and restrictions affect the movement/accessibility of the users to reach the nearest emergency exits or the safe zone. For this reason, different scenarios have to be developed to study the impact of the accessibilities for different types of users. In this paper we will present the 3D model of an educational building that was built for the purpose of evacuation study. The 3D model is supported by real data for all spaces from the facility management department such as information on departments, sections, groups of users (visitors, employees, and students), and public/private spaces, etc. and a real evacuation exercise. We consider it extremely important to develop our information model based on international standards (LADM/ISO 19152, OGC IndoorGML, ISO 19141, ISO 19107) as we expect that this information will be part of the future ‘building infrastructure’ and applications all over the world can understand and use this data when entering or leaving a certain building both during normal and crisis situations. Different types of applications are anticipated to be based on this information model; e.g. mobile indoor routing app (for normal building users and Emergency Response Team members), crisis evacuation desktop application for command centre, etc.