SPATIAL DATABASE DEVELOPMENT FOR OIL SPILLS POLLUTION AFFECTING WATER QUALITY SYSTEM IN NIGER DELTA
Keywords: Niger Delta, oil spill, groundwater, Kernel density, entity relationship
Abstract. The effects of oil spills in the Niger Delta has caused unending menace to the quality of drinking water in most wells and boreholes of the area as most of the wells are shallow and are susceptible to contamination due to the nature of its Geology. The aim of this paper is to develop a database on how oil spills affects water quality which is one of the most crucial resources in the Niger Delta. The study uses existing oil spills data to show the areas and extent of oil pollution in the Niger Delta. Geospatial analysis was used to design an oil spill data base comprising the logical, physical, and conceptual data base design. Visio was used for the design of the entity relationship (ER) diagram of the study. The Kernel density and Getis-Ord G* statistic were used in GIS to map the oil spill areas in the region. Results of spatial spill distribution from the Kernel density and Getis-Ord G* statistic revealed that three states of the Niger Delta namely, Bayelsa, Rivers, and Delta states are the hottest spots for oil spill occurrences and distribution. The ER chart showed the relationships between the pollution sources, their pathways, and the receptors. The ER diagram developed could be of significance to environmentalists and other stakeholders in understanding the processes through which contaminants get to the various compartments of the earth system.