THE PRESENCE OF GEOPHYSICAL LOADINGS IN GPS OBSERVATIONS USING GENERAL LEAST SQUARES APPROACHES
- 1Geomatic Innovation Research Group (GnG), Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
- 2Geoscience and Digital Earth Centre (INSTEG), Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
- 3Geodesy Research Group, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia
Keywords: Geophysical Loadings, Earth Body Tide, Ocean Tide Loading, GPS Observation
Abstract. The earth’s crust undergoes natural deformation due to the geophysical loadings that consist of the earth body tide, ocean tide loading, atmospheric pressure loading and pole tide. This periodic displacement is generated by the changes of the gravitational attraction between the moon and the sun acting upon the earth’s rotation, along with the temporal atmospheric changes and the variability of the ocean tide. The study of the geophysical loadings is important in the geodesy field as the magnitude of the signals is significant and can contribute to errors in space geodetic measurements such as Global Positioning System (GPS), Very-Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Altimeter. This study is conducted to evaluate the percentage of geophysical loadings in GPS observations by adopting general least square approaches. The presence of the geophysical loadings indicates that as many as 76% to 93% of the geophysical loadings signal are contained in the GPS time series. The findings reveal that earth body tide signals are more significant if compared to ocean tide loading signals because the magnitude of the earth body tide is greater than that of the ocean tide loading and it affects the coordinate system particularly at up component. Results illustrated the potential of GPS to provide the local parameters of the geophysical loadings that are beneficial for earth tidal modelling and that can be used to improve the quality of space geodetic measurements.