ESTIMATION OF TREE POSITION AND STEM DIAMETER USING SIMULTANEOUS LOCALIZATION AND MAPPING WITH DATA FROM A BACKPACK-MOUNTED LASER SCANNER
- 1Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden
- 2Electrooptical Systems and Sensor Informatics, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden
- 3Swedish Forest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden
Keywords: Mobile laser scanning, Forest inventory, Tree detection, Tree map, SLAM, Remote sensing
Abstract. A system was developed for automatic estimations of tree positions and stem diameters. The sensor trajectory was first estimated using a positioning system that consists of a low precision inertial measurement unit supported by image matching with data from a stereo-camera. The initial estimation of the sensor trajectory was then calibrated by adjustments of the sensor pose using the laser scanner data. Special features suitable for forest environments were used to solve the correspondence and matching problems. Tree stem diameters were estimated for stem sections using laser data from individual scanner rotations and were then used for calibration of the sensor pose. A segmentation algorithm was used to associate stem sections to individual tree stems. The stem diameter estimates of all stem sections associated to the same tree stem were then combined for estimation of stem diameter at breast height (DBH). The system was validated on four 20 m radius circular plots and manual measured trees were automatically linked to trees detected in laser data. The DBH could be estimated with a RMSE of 19 mm (6 %) and a bias of 8 mm (3 %). The calibrated sensor trajectory and the combined use of circle fits from individual scanner rotations made it possible to obtain reliable DBH estimates also with a low precision positioning system.