MONITORING AND DEFORMATION ANALYSIS OF GROYNES USING TLS AT THE RIVER ELBE
- 1HafenCity University Hamburg, Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning Lab, Überseeallee 16, 20457 Hamburg, Germany
- 2Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute, Hydraulic Engineering in Coastal Areas, Wedeler Landstraße 157, 22559 Hamburg, Germany
Keywords: 3D, Deformation, Groyne, Monitoring, Point Cloud Library (PCL), TLS
Abstract. To enter the Port of Hamburg, one of Europe’s busiest ports all vessels need to navigate around 145 km along the Elbe river, a tide influenced navigation channel. To protect the Elbe shoreline from erosion and to channel the waterway groynes (rigid hydraulic structures) have been built along the river. In the past years since ca. 2001 there has been a large increase in damage of groynes structural integrity at parts of the German waterways. The reason for this was determined in the ever growing size of container vessels passing by and inducing long periodical primary waves which have such a force that they erode the groynes rock structure. To analyse and improve the groynes structural resistance for vessel-induced long periodical wave loads an in-situ study is carried out at Juelssand, located at the Elbe river estuary. Over a period of two years the change of the geometrical structure of two different groyne shapes is monitored automatically by utilising two terrestrial laser scanners mounted in protective housings, located each on a 12 m high platform. The self-contained monitoring systems perform scanning of the two groynes one to two times a day at low tide, as the structures are fully submerged at high tide. The long-periodical wave loads are also determined using pressure sensors in each groyne. To correlate the captured data with vessel events and analyse the effects, vessel related parameters are recorded utilizing the Automatic Identification System (AIS).
This paper describes the automated processes for the data acquisition and focusses on the deformation that is calculated using current, extended and new algorithms of the Point Cloud Library. It shows the process chain from the acquisition of raw scan files from an elevated station to the filtering of point cloud, the registration, the calculation of pointwise changes and the aggregation to a grid for later correlation with ship parameters. When working outdoor in all kinds of weather conditions, the processes and equipment need to be robust and account for various cases and situations. This is especially applicable for the algorithms, which need to be adaptable to different scenarios like wet surfaces or snow and unwelcome objects ranging from flotsam to birds sitting on the groyne. At the current stage of the research, deformation in the magnitude of a couple of decimetres is observable. The orientation and location of the deformation is on the seaward side and corresponds to the lower distance of vessels leaving the harbour.